The above principles and these notes to them are stated from prime principles without reference to any existing principles of government, and for that reason can raise questions from those whose thinking is affected by the presently prevalent legal, moral and political doctrines (e.g. 'human rights', 'social justice', etc.).
Analysis of the fundamental issues facing mankind today, and comments on current issues and events from the standpoint of right and wrong, true and false can be found at truth-and-justice.info.
Civil wrong is injustice inflicted without deliberate intent, and not as a result of gross negligence. Examples unintentional damage to property, unintentional breach of contractual obligation. In such cases the remedy is not punishment, but compensation or restitution. Crimes often, but not necessarily, involve civil wrongs. In such cases punishment must be accompanies by restitution or compensation.
Contract is a voluntary agreement intended by the parties to be legally binding.
Crime is injustice inflicted with deliberate intent, or as a result of gross negligence. It is an act which must be prevented through fear of punishment. Attempt to commit a crime is also a criminal act. Examples are murder, rape, theft, arson, intentional bodily injury, fraud, abuse of government powers (i.e. politics).
Equal means equal under the law only: "The legal rights of any single person in the world are equal to the legal rights of the rest of mankind". It does not mean economic or any other equality. The legal rights of groups of persons (tribes, nations, commercial, social or any other organisations) are equal to those of a single private person. Governments do not have any rights, or privileges, they have only duties and powers necessary for the exercise of these duties.
Forcing means any form of compulsion or inducement by use of force, deception or breach of contractual obligation.
Free means that a person is free to use his time and energy in accordance with his own wishes, to acquire, own, and dispose of property, to enter into legally binding contractual agreements with other persons, including marriage. The principle of equality under the law imposes on the freedom of the person limitation that he cannot interfere with the freedom of others without their consent. The only legal way in which a person can interact with other people is voluntary cooperation, voluntary gift, or contract. Contract, however, imposes limitation on the freedom of the parties - performance of the contractual obligations. Freedom of a person is also constrained by the natural non-contractual obligations arising out of birth and marriage and of the obligation to comply with administrative laws imposed by a legitimate government for the purpose of administration of justice, public safety and well-being.
The only legitimate reason for interfering by a person with other person's freedom without his consent is prevention of such interference (self-defence and prevention of crime).
General public safety and well-being means for the benefit of the nation as a whole and not of a group within a nation at the expense of another group. It is limited to the general and strictly necessary, and does not amount to personalised services and gratification of personal desires.
Interference with the person means infliction on a person of any physical or mental harm, including death.
Interference with the property means any damage, destruction, use, causation of change, taking of possession, or prevention of access or use by the owner.
Person means an adult of sound mind, whether a single person or any group of persons. The rights of a national state are equal to the rights of a single private person.
Politics in the context of government, is abuse of government powers to promote a particular interest. For example to promote the personal career of a politician, or to favour a group of people on whose votes or financial support a particular government depends. A government could be elected, because it promises to pass laws favouring a particular group, or it can yield to pressures by a group when already in power. At the international level it could use wars, economic blockades, or restrictive trading practices to obtain a dishonest advantage or influence over another country. In all cases a government indulging in politics, rather than performing honest administration over its area of governance, is abusing its powers. Abuse of government powers is crime (Principle 9). Any form of favouritism by governments violates the principle of equality under the law (Principle 1) and is crime.
Powers are rights to commit acts, which, if committed by persons not having these rights would have constituted crimes or civil wrongs. For example to take money from a person by use of threat of force is the crime of 'robbery'. To finance its legitimate activities governments are given powers to levy taxes, that is to take money from people against their will under the threat of imprisonment. Nobody except government can have such powers. If any person or group of people (a commercial company, a charity, a political party, a trade union) would try to collect money for any purpose against any person's will using a threat, they would be committing crime. Moreover, the power of government to collect taxes is limited to collecting taxes for the purpose of financing its legitimate activities. To use this power to collect money for any other purpose is crime. For example, collecting taxes for the purpose of 'making the pips of the rich squeak' (the reason for high taxation given by a British Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer) was a crime against property committed by the British government (Principle 4). The income tax rate for the year 1976-77 in Britain was 83% on incomes of £20,000 p.a after a personal allowance of £735, that is a single person earning £21,000 a year was left with £4,180, £16,820 went to the government.
Responsibility of children and adults of unsound mind is limited to the extent of their ability, responsibility beyond that limit lies with their parents or guardians.